Pininfarina, the legendary design house and coachbuilder responsible for timeless vehicle designs for makers like Ferrari, Alfa Romeo, and Maserati, created the 1990s Ethos working concept to demonstrate environmental performance. The question: Could an efficient two-stroke engine achieve near-zero emissions?
Up to 15 percent of the fuel used by a typical vehicle goes into producing energy needed to overcome rolling resistance. Energy is needed to counter road surface friction and losses due to hysteresis when tires flex. This energy loss